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自动化毕业设计论文

DAMS环境下工业机器人运动控制和联合仿真

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时间:2013/1/8 22:03:31  作者:  来源:  查看:67  评论:0
内容摘要:摘      要  虚拟样机技术就是在建造第一台物理样机之前,设计师利用计算机技术建立机械系统的数字化模型,进行仿真分析并以图形方式显示该系统在真实工程条件下的各种特性,从而修改并得到最优设计方案的技术。ADA...

摘      要

 

 虚拟样机技术就是在建造第一台物理样机之前,设计师利用计算机技术建立机械系统的数字化模型,进行仿真分析并以图形方式显示该系统在真实工程条件下的各种特性,从而修改并得到最优设计方案的技术。

ADAMS软件是目前国际上应用最为广泛的虚拟样机分析软件,用户可以运用该软件非常方便地对虚拟机械系统进行静力学、运动学和动力学分析。但针对复杂的机器人机械系统,要想准确的控制其运动,仅依靠ADAMS软件自身也很难做到;MATLAB软是Mathworks公司开发的一种集计算、图形可视化和编辑功能于一体的优秀数学应用软件,具有强大的计算能力,能够建立复杂的控制模型准确控制复杂机器人系统的运动;OpenGL(开放式图形库全称)是SGI公司开发的底层三维图形API,目前在图形开发领域已成为工业标准。使用OpenGL可以创建视觉质量接近射线跟踪程序的精致漂亮的3D图形。Visual C++ 6.0已经成为集编辑、编译。运行、调试为一体的功能强大的集成编程环境,在Windows编程中占有重要地位。OpenGL和Visual C++ 6.0有紧密接口,利用二者可以开发出优秀的视镜仿真系统。ADAMS、MATLAB和Visual C++ 6.0由于定位不同,都有各自的优势和缺点,但是三者之间又可以通过接口联合控制或者混合编程。本文分别利用ADAMS对三自由度机器人的运动学和轨迹优化方案进行研究,利用Visual C++ 6.0、OpenGL和从MATLAB里导出的控制模型的数据对三自由度机器人进行了视景仿真的研究。

论文首先通过建立坐标系和矩阵变换,对刚体的空间表示进行了阐述,然后采用通用的D-H法则,将机器人关节角度参数化,推导出其正运动学方程和逆运动关节角,并计算出机器人手部的初始坐标。其次采用ADAMS软件,详细介绍了机器人三维建模过程,包括整体框架构建,单个构件绘图和布尔运算等,并对机器人关节点进行了参数化设计。最后从机器人轨迹规划的基本原理和方法出发,比较分析了关节空间轨迹规划和直角坐标空间轨迹规划的差别,并采用三次多项式和五次多项式对机器人进行了轨迹规划,利用ADAMS软件中内嵌的Step函数对运动轨迹进行了仿真分析。然后在Windows XP Professional的系统环境下,以Visuall C++6.0为开发工具,建立了三自由度机械手视景仿真系统模型,实现了仿真系统对MATLAB控制模型导出数据的读取和利用。

 

关键词:运动学  轨迹规划  ADAMS虚拟样机技术  视景仿真  纹理映射

 

 

Abstract

 

Before manufacturing the first physical prototype, the designers used computer technology to build a mechanical system of digital model for analysis simulation, which showed that the system works in real conditions of the various characteristics, so as to be revised and Optimal design. This process is called Virtual prototyping technology.

Now ADAMS software is widely used in virtual prototyping analysis in the world, it is very convenient for the user to use this software ot do the statics, kinematics and dynamics analysis for the virtual machine system.But to the complicated robot mechanical system,it is also very hard to do the accurate control of its movement only rely on ADAMS software itself ;MATLAB is one of the outstanding mathematics application software integrating calculation, graphical visualization and editing functions developed by the Mathworks company , and it has strong ability in complex calculation, being able to create the control model to do accurate control of the robot system's complicated movement . OpenGL(the full name of Open graphics libraries) is a 3D graphics Application Programming Interface in the bottom,now having been the industry standard in the area of graphics developing.You can create delicate and beautiful 3D graphics using OpenGL,whose visual quality is close to ray tracing program . Visual C + + 6.0 has become powerful integrated programming environment with editing, compiling. Operating and debugging, and occupies an important position in the Windows programming. Visual C + + 6.0 and OpenGL has close interface, using them we can develop good endoscopic simulation system. Because of the different due , ADAMS, Visual C + + 6.0 and MATLAB have their own respective advantages and disadvantages, but we can also do the joint control or mixing programming through the interface between the three.In this paper, the author do research tokinematics and track optimization scheme of 3-dof robot based on ADAMS , also do the Visual simulation research of 3-dof robot using the data of the control model derived from the MATLAB based on Visual C + + 6.0 and OpenGL.

First of all, through the establishment of coordinates and matrix transformation, the rigid body of the space that was elaborated, and then use the D-H rule, Robot parameters of the joint were gained, equations of motion were given, and the joints angle were known , initial coordinates of Robot hand can be calculated. Followed by ADAMS software, we processed details of the robot three-dimensional modeling, including the overall framework for building, mapped a single component and Boolean operation, designed parameters for the robot and the key points. Finally, we introduced the basic principles and methods of robot trajectory planning, and compared differences between the joint space trajectory planning and rectangular coordinates space trajectory planning. the cubic polynomial and five polynomial of the robot trajectory planning were carried out, the Step function were used on a trajectory simulation analysis of ADAMS software.Then in Windows XP system environment, using Visual C + + 6.0 as development tool, the author establish a 3-dof manipulator visual simulation system, realizing the accessing and using to the data of control model derived from MATLAB .

 

Key words: kinematics  trajectory planning  ADAMS virtual prototyping technology   Visual simulation  Texture mapping

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tags:环境 下工 工业 机器 机器人 运动 控制 联合 仿真   


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